Afghanistan is now the scene of both the Afghan government forces, the Taliban IS like. Al-Qaeda is not gone and there are more Nato troops. Citizens are stuck between the warring parties.
The situation in Afghanistan worsens by the day. In the run-up to the parliamentary elections on 20 October, the number of attacks. In 2017 there were 1.662 civilians killed, the expectation is that the …
The situation in Afghanistan worsens by the day. In the run-up to the parliamentary elections on 20 October, the number of attacks. In 2017 there were 1.662 civilians killed, the expectation is that the number of deaths in 2018 to be higher. Last week fell to the Taliban in the city of Ghazni, with 35 civilians killed as a result. In addition to the Taliban is also looking for IS for her attacks often deliberately civilian targets, think of mosques, and blood banks. Last week, 34 students in an attack on a school.
• Who is fighting with whom?
The fights in Afghanistan take place between, on the one hand, the Afghan government forces and Nato allies and on the other hand, armed groups such as the Taliban and IS-affiliated groups. Most of the battle is provided by the Taliban, who in recent years her attacks in major urban areas has intensified to the government and the foreign military facilities to the touch. They make more and more victims who have nothing to do with the government or with international forces. After the losses of in the Middle-East IS-ers to be more active in South Asia, including Afghanistan.
• Nato Is still active?
By the end of 2014 attracted a lot of Nato countries have their troops back. Because the Taliban back stronger and by the displacement of IS to Afghanistan, they come there partly on the back. Currently, there are about 16,000 soldiers in Afghanistan from 39 countries, mainly from the United States. The Dutch government decided this spring sixty additional soldiers to Afghanistan to send commands together with German soldiers, a unit of the Afghan special forces in Mazar-i-Sharif to train. There were already a hundred Dutch people active. The netherlands continues to remain at the mission to contribute to the end of 2021. The British prime minister, Theresa May showed this spring also know that the United Kingdom 440 extra troops to send.
• How many deaths are there cases in Afghanistan since 2001?
After Syria, Afghanistan is, according to the Global Peace Index, the country where most of the violence takes place. Between 2001 and 2017 are more than 33,000 civilians killed. The total number of deaths, thus including all the warring parties, amounts to more than 136.000. According to the UN, fell in 2017 most of the dead and injured since 2009. Civilians killed are not only in the attacks, but also by the increased air attacks, both the Afghan government forces and Nato. In 2018, according to Pajhwok Afghan News, that the daily numbers are tracking about the war in Afghanistan, to mid-August, nearly 10,000 deaths. The expectation is that in 2018 a bloodier year than 2017, especially as the parliamentary elections on 20 October. The number of deaths is in verkiezingsmaanden usually higher by attacks.
• Is there hope for improvement?
In Qatar, there are peace talks going on between the Taliban and the US. Formerly took place between the Afghan government and the Taliban, but the Taliban see the US as the occupier and therefore the only party that they have to take seriously. They demand an end to the occupation, sovereignty for Afghanistan and an end to the war, was the leader of the Taliban, Maulvi Haibatullah Akhunzadah, on Saturday, know.
• Why negotiate with the US with the Taliban?
Already gave Talibanstrijders to talk with negotiators from the US. That was by the American government denied, but this time not. That is not just because the American president, Trump has indicated that there is too much money is spent on the war in Afghanistan, but also because the united states is in Afghanistan more to focus on the fight against IS. In place of soldiers to pull back, Trump more troops sent into a war that has now become the longest war in American military history.
• What is the difference between the Taliban and IS?
Both groups are muslim, sunni and have a very conservative and literal interpretation of the Qur’an. The Taliban are different then it IS not an international focus. That is exactly the objection that the IS fighters against the Taliban. They blame the Taliban, nationalist thinking and see the Taliban as an obstacle to foot on the ground in Afghanistan. IS wants a caliphate that should stretch across Iran, Central Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan, while the Taliban, an Afghan state that is ruled by sharia appliance. The Taliban-fighters as invaders in Afghanistan for an international conflict.
• How began the fight?
When the USA in 2001, Afghanistan was invaded, they founded themselves on Al-Qaeda. This group was founded in 1988 by Osama Bin laden and Mohammad Atif, just before the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda is alive, sharia law and salafism, which the west is seen as a threat to islam. Al-Qaeda in recent years, smashed hit, and according to American experts, they are only still underground. U.S. focus in the war in Afghanistan less and less on Al-Qaeda.
At this time it is the Taliban that most of the attack on cities, and in Afghanistan in general. Just as Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, sunni and ultra-orthodox, but their principles are based on Pakistani and Afghan Pasjtoe traditions. They ruled over most of Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when they were driven from the capital, Kabul. Also they are in favour of the sharia appliance.
• You can still speak of a central authority?
No. In the districts where they predominate, have the Taliban run a parallel government structure created. They collect their own taxes and in some provincial parts to get the Taliban so little resistance, that they are concerned with the health, education and trade. In practice, this means that education is adapted (children, for example, lessons in wapengebruik), and that hospitals are forced to give priority to injured Talibanstrijders. Terror group IS has not yet fully districts under his wing, and is still in Afghanistan for no cities to such as the Taliban in Ghazni, for example, did. IS also focuses on other targets for attacks: shia places such as mosques (almost 20 percent of the Afghan population is sjiitisch), the in their eyes ‘nationalistic’ Taliban, but also schools, service organisations and, for example, blood banks. Since there IS, according to Human Rights Watch more ‘humanitarian limits’ are exceeded.
• Since when is IS in Afghanistan?
IS received from 2014 more foot on the ground in Afghanistan. After the large city of Mosul in Iraq had been conquered, were different Talibanleiders about to. Now fight with each other. Other than the Taliban IS, in fact, no ambitions for Afghanistan as a political unit, because IS does not think in national terms. The Taliban and fight each other in Afghanistan, and the battle is increasingly fierce. Mid-July WAS a Taliban command post, where Talibanstrijders were killed. In the northern province of Jawzjan, there were at the end of July fights, where fighters on both sides perished. IS surrendered after two days of fighting.
• What does this mean for the economy?
Of the countries which is economically the most suffering from the war, the state of Afghanistan after Syria on the second place. Oorlogsuitgaven amounts in these three countries, 68 (Syria), 63 (Afghanistan) to over 50 (Iraq) percent of the Gross National Product. Farmers are for a large part dependent on opium poppy. UNODC, the United Nations Office for Drugs and Crime, states that Afghanistan, the world market dominates as the opiates. In 2017, almost 90 percent of the opium coming from Afghanistan. The Taliban are forcing farmers to poppy cultivation, which they are a part of the harvest claim. Also, dealers in opium and heroin to pay a kind of tax to the Taliban. Officially, they are against consumption of drugs, but the Taliban deserve to. As the Taliban to gain ground, the poppy cultivation will only increase.
• How does the population?
Many people would like to way, but feel trapped between the warring parties. The number of Afghans that the country knows to leave it, since 2015 decreased according to Human Rights Watch, while the number of civilians killed each year is from 2014 substantially increased. In addition, Afghans are increasingly being returned because of Afghanistan for a large part as to be safely seen.
UN secretary António Guterres stressed last year that the countries that Afghan refugees returning to little realizing that in Afghanistan there is no question of a ‘post-conflict’situation, but a conflict in which there is no evidence that the intensity reduces.