Highways penetrating deep into the heart of American cities. Seventy years ago, was that if progress is considered, today, attempt, city with canopies of the urban fabric to restore.
Interstate 5 stretches more than 2,000 km long, from Mexico to Canada, through the monotonous plains and spectacular mountains. And… right through Seattle, twelve lanes wide. The highway splits …
Interstate 5 stretches more than 2,000 km long, from Mexico to Canada, through the monotonous plains and spectacular mountains. And… right through Seattle, twelve lanes wide. The highway splits the city in two, but the townspeople are fed up. They want to go back with the bike, or on foot from one district to the other. They want trees and grass in their neighborhood, no noise of cars. The highway covering would that make it all possible, argues the action group (I-5 (Overkap Interstate 5). Not without success, because on 18 april and decided by the city council or a feasibility study is carried out.
The proponents of the canopy have good arguments. The surrounding neighborhoods will no longer choke by the exhaust gases, and the city is again one.
A way to country to make
A city without green pulls also hard for new companies to. At the same time, there must be economical to be presented with the space, because Seattle is a fast-growing city. The next twenty years will be an estimated 28,000 families in the city want to establish. A park on the roof of the motorway network is the ideal solution, according to the group. It is also a lot cheaper than expensive building land into public green space.
Seattle is with this project is not to his advantage. In other American cities, the canopies nor new. Phoenix, Arizona has a since 1990 and Boston can since ten years, boasts the largest park above a highway. The latest wave of canopies is dictated primarily by economic considerations. “It is a development strategy,” said Jennifer Ball of Central Atlanta Progress to a researcher from the think tank Pew. ‘There is land for them.’ Balls ondernemersgroep is the driving force behind the campaign for a huge overkappingsproject in the center of Atlanta.
It remains a dirty, dirty highway
That was also the reason why they are in Dallas, Texas with the canopies started. Bobby Abtahi, who is responsible for ‘Parks and Recreation’, found that companies in the city left four of us. After the canopy fired the real estate prices up, and hence the tax revenue of the city. The prices for the surrounding offices increased by a third since the opening of Klyde Warren Park in 2012. Two months ago, the city began a second overkappingsproject.
Not everyone, however, is equally enthusiastic. A highway with a park on it remains a dirty, dirty highway. Cities would be better in high-quality public transport investment, say critics. In addition, the projects are very expensive, and takes the construction usually longer than planned.
Intended for evacuation during nuclear war
All in all, keep the canopies factory, to old errors a little bit to straighten out. The construction of the motorway network, seventy years ago, made a lot of American cities devastated.
President Dwight Eisenhower began in 1956 with the construction of the Interstate Highway System – now over 77,000 miles long. He took out the mustard with the Germans. In the aftermath of the Second world War, he had as commander-in-chief of the allied armed forces be useful to use the Autobahnen to Hitler’s troops to chase to Berlin.
A quarter of a century previously, he was with a legerkonvooi from Washington to San Francisco drawn. Sixty-two days was the journey taken and the roads were so bad that nine trucks in the mash were driven. Eisenhower had especially a smooth evacuation in the event of a nuclear war on the eye – these were the heydays of the Cold War.
Probably he had no idea of how drastically his ways the country would change. The car made it to the white middle class as possible to ever-further outside the city to live in and still in the city to work. The new highways brought the commuters deep into the center of the city.
Urban renewal, or ethnic cleansing?
Of her side of the car and betonlobby very hard on the cart is pulled. General Motors, reports the website Vox, tried already in 1939, the visitors of the world exhibition of New York’s enthusiasm for the benefits of such a network deep in the heart of the city.
The big losers were the African-American city dwellers. Their neighborhoods were destroyed. Some neighborhoods were demolished to make way for highways. The other remained standing, but were it contained, so that they could no longer expand. More and more people were becoming closer to each other live, with all the social consequences.
Many white city leaders were enthusiastic about the urban highways. They saw them as a means to the black neighborhoods to clean up. Urban renewal, it was called that at the time. Ethnic cleansing is more correct.
‘To ascend to the middle class is complicated by historic decisions regarding transport and infrastructure, approved Anthony Foxx, president Obama’s secretary of Transportation, two years ago, in a speech to the think tank Center for American Progress. “Urban highways have economic inequality, exacerbated by the destruction of black residential areas at gerieve of motorists from the suburbs.’
Sorry for the highway
Detroit, the birthplace of the American auto industry, there is a sad example of this. Just as St. Paul, Minnesota, where in the 60’s the I-94 right through the black neighborhood of Rondo was constructed. The destruction was so great that the mayor three years ago, official apology to the inhabitants.
Now studies the city council, the covering of the highway to Rondo again to unite. Nevertheless, projects in poorer neighbourhoods, the exception. Social considerations are not usually the driving force behind the canopies.